The suspended dust Pitt’s character marvels at while speeding across the lunar surface seems non-sensical in that air-less environment at first. But the Apollo astronauts observed what they called a “horizon glow” along the night/day line near where this scene supposed to take place. Recent studies have explained this phenomenon as a permanent dust cloud around the Moon created by impacts from high-speed particles from passing comets. The Geminid meteor shower is particularly strong contributor.
The film also gets the blue sunrise on Mars right. The sun appears about 2/3 the size of sunrises on Earth and blue in color as other wavelengths of light are scattered by dust particles in the atmosphere-starved Martian sky.
Fixing a punctured spacesuit with duct tape isn’t unreasonable. Duct tape has been an important part of the space program. It helped saved the Apollo 13 astronauts and was used to repair a lunar rover fender on Apollo 17. Ad Astra’s spacesuits are also very familiar – from the orange “pumpkin suits” worn by shuttle crews after the Challenger disaster to the helmet design which relied on the skills of the cinematographer to light actors faces rather than internal lighting used in films like Armageddon.
The interplanetary engines pictured in the film look like ion drives. These are already in use by the Deep Space 1, Hayabusa and Dawn missions. Ion drives use electricity to accelerate ions of a fuel like xenon or argon gas proving a small but steady amount of thrust.