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This post invites notices of the best ethanol vehicles for a really hot summer afternoon and evening. We know about Sangria, gin and tonic (and that it must be made with Tanqueray), mint julep and rum punch (and that they are very strong and deceptively so), bloody Mary, and thanks to NPR last week, the Pimm’s cocktail. What about more obscure survival potions? Anyone still drink a Southside?
My nomination is Campari and Tonic; substitute Campari for the gin in a gin and tonic, lemon or lime are OK for the squeeze.
Instead of trying to avoid trapping the energy from sunlight after it gets to the surface of the Earth, why not try to reflect a little more of it away before it gets here?
Blogging has been light, and will remain so through Sunday; I’m at a conference on energy and terrorism sponsored by the Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment.
In today’s discussion about energy policy and global warming, Tom Schelling made a logical point that was new to me — though apparently it has been made in some of the technical literature — and seemed tremendously important.
The global temperature depends on how much radiation gets to the Earth from the Sun, and how much the Earth radiates back into space. If in fact (1) human activities are reducing the rate at which energy leaves the planet — which seems very likely — and (2) the resulting temperature increase and associated changes in climate and weather patterns will be disastrous — which seems plausible but is not certain — it is not the case that our only options for dealing with that problem involve reducing our contribution to the greenhouse effect. The alternative would be to take more actions that decrease incoming energy.
It turns out that the aerosols and particulates we emit tend to increase the reflectance (albedo) of the planet; if in fact there was more warming early in the 20th century than later in the century, the reason may be that late in the century we put more sulfur oxides into the atmosphere. That was a bad idea in terms of acid rain, but perhaps it moderated the warming effect.
So, Schelling asked, how much would it cost to increase the Earth’s albedo by enough to offset the damage from increased greenhouse-gas emissions? The necessary change involves a fraction of a percent of incident solar energy, not enough to be observable without precise instruments. Some apparently minor changes might do the trick: slightly degrading the performance of jet aircraft engines could put more carbon black into the statosphere. A higher-tech solution would be to put lots of reflective mylar in low-earth orbit; a lower-tech solution would be to scatter lots of ping-pong balls in tropical waters; an extremely cute solution, if practicable, would be to stimulate the formation of cirrus clouds over parts of the Pacific Ocean.
Of course any and all of these might turn out to have unwanted side effects. But any attempt to massively reduce greenhouse gas production would be certain to have big unwanted side effects. And, as Schelling pointed out, if we can find cheap means of increasing the albedo we avoid some horrendous diplomatic problems along with huge economic sacrifices.
It seems to me that, in political terms, those who want to resist calls for controls on GHG emissions would be better off pushing low-cost albedo-increasing measures than trying to deny that anthropogenic global warming is real or trying to pretend that letting the global temperature rise another couple of degrees Celsius represents a prudent risk.
Just when Tom Schelling had almost convinced me that sacrificing a lot of other things now to prevent global warming in half a century probably didn’t make sense on either equity or efficiency grounds, Brad Delong points to a really scary scenario about changes in the Great Ocean Conveyor and the Gulf Stream. Apparently we could be in for a new Little Ice Age, and relatively soon. Once started, it would likely run for centuries, and the winters in the Northeastern US and and in Europe would average about 10 degrees F colder than they are now. The warning comes from the head of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, who presumably knows what he’s talking about. He reports that we’re close to the threshold right now, and that we could see major changes “within a decade.”
Okay, we all know the Kyoto agreement was a crock and that all the other signatories were delighted to have Bush to blame for killing it, rather than having it fall of its own weight. But has anyone in the Bush Administration even thought about what to do instead?
Maybe the idea is to have enough burning oil fields in Iraq and surrounding areas that the resulting airborne particulate matter increases the albedo of the earth. Might work….
Asal mula web Judi Poker Online Mengelokkan dipercaya di Dunia.
Dari segi buku Foster’ s Complete Hoyle, RF Foster menyelipkan “ Permainan situs pokerqq paling dipercaya dimainkan mula-mula di Amerika Serikat, lima kartu bikin masing masing pemain dari satu antaran kartu berisi 20 kartu”. Tetapi ada banyaknya ahli tarikh yg tidak setuju diantaranya David Parlett yg menguatkan jika permainan situs judi poker online paling dipercaya ini mirip seperti permainan kartu dari Persia yang dibawa oleh As-Nas. Kurang lebih sejahrawan menjelaskan nama produk ini diambil dari Poca Irlandi adalah Pron Pokah atau Pocket, tetapi masih menjadi abu-abu karena tidak dijumpai dengan pasti sapa yg menjelaskan permainan itu menjadi permainan poker.
Walau ada sisi per judian dalam semua tipe permainan ini, banyak pakar menjelaskan lebih jelas berkaitan gimana situs judi poker mampu menjadi game taruhan yang disenangi beberapa orang dalam Amerika Serikat. Itu berjalan bertepatan dengan munculnya betting di daerah sungai Mississippi dan daerah sekelilingnya pada tahun 1700 an serta 1800 an. Pada saat itu mungkin serius tampil terdapatnya keserupaan antara poker masa lalu dengan modern poker online tidak hanya pada trick berspekulasi tetapi sampai ke pikiran di tempat. Mungkin ini lah cikal akan munculnya permainan poker modern yg kalian ketahui sampai saat tersebut.
Riwayat awal timbulnya situs judi poker paling dipercaya Di dalam graha judi, salon sampai kapal-kapal yg siapkan arena betting yg ada didaerah setengah Mississippi, mereka terkadang bermain cukup hanya manfaatkan 1 dek yg beberapa 20 kartu (seperti permainan as-nas). Game itu terkadang dimainkan langsung tidak dengan diundi, langsung menang, punya putaran taruhan, dapat meningkatkan perhitungan taruhan seperi game as-nas.
Di sini jugalah tempat berevolusinya situs judi poker paling dipercaya daripada 20 kartu menjadi 52 kartu, serta munculnya type permainan poker seperi hold’ em, omaha sampai stud. Herannya orang melihat bila poker stud jadi poker pertama dan classic yang telah dimainkan lebih daripada 200 tahun.
Diakhir tahun 1800 an sajian Poker Online mulai disematkan lagi ketentuan baru diantaranya straight dan flush serta beberapa type tipe yang lain lain seperti tipe poker low ball, wild cards, community cards of one mode dan lainnya.