New wisdom (?) from Washington

Some Native American peoples traditionally used hallucinogens, notably the mescaline-bearing peyote cactus, for ritual purposes. Staring in the 1880s, a specific version of ritual peyote use has spread widely among Native Americans, including many from tribes without hallucinogen traditions of their own. While peyote use long predates the introduction of Christianity to the New World, today’s peyote rituals are essentially Christian. The Native American Church (not a single organization, but a collection of local bodies with somewhat different practices) now claims 250,000 members. After a long political and legal struggle, federal regulations were changed to exempt Native American ritual peyote use from the drug laws in 1965; the American Indian Religious Freedom Act Amendments of 1994 codified that exepmtion and made it binding on the states.

In recent years, freedom of exercise for the peyote religion has been largely uncontroversial. Even drug war hawks supported AIRFAA, and the Drug Enforcement Administration offered no opposition and has stressed its good working relationships with the NAC. The House Committee report on AIRFAA bill asserts what has become the conventional wisdom on the topic:

Medical evidence, based on scientific studies and. opinions of scientific and other experts, including medical doctors, former directors of the Indian Health Service and Enthropologists, clearly demonstrates peyote is not injurious to the Indian religious user, and, in fact, is often helpful in controlling alcoholism and alcohol abuse among Indian people.

In that context, the last two paragraphs of this otherwise unremarkable Philadelphia Inqurer article about peyote use among the Huichol of Mexico are rather chilling. After citing a scientist who is studying ritual peyote users and finding no health damage, the story continues:

Others, such as David Murray of the Office of National Drug Control Policy in Washington, see more serious risk. Working among the Navajo, he said, he found long-term peyote use was “counterproductive to education and social mobility.”

Because the peyote comes from a natural plant, he said, “you’re taking in a powerful chemical stew,” with some toxins in addition to the psychoactive ingredient. “It is, without question, a risky undertaking.”

It seems unlikely that Murray, a close adviser to John Walters, would talk that way for publication without clearing it. Is this a trial balloon for a policy change? If Murray, an anthropologist, has any research to back up his claims, we’d all like to see it.

Author: Mark Kleiman

Professor of Public Policy at the NYU Marron Institute for Urban Management and editor of the Journal of Drug Policy Analysis. Teaches about the methods of policy analysis about drug abuse control and crime control policy, working out the implications of two principles: that swift and certain sanctions don't have to be severe to be effective, and that well-designed threats usually don't have to be carried out. Books: Drugs and Drug Policy: What Everyone Needs to Know (with Jonathan Caulkins and Angela Hawken) When Brute Force Fails: How to Have Less Crime and Less Punishment (Princeton, 2009; named one of the "books of the year" by The Economist Against Excess: Drug Policy for Results (Basic, 1993) Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control (Greenwood, 1989) UCLA Homepage Curriculum Vitae Contact:

2 thoughts on “New wisdom (?) from Washington”

  1. What the hell is peyote?

    Mark A. R. Kleiman brings up a point about peyote. As a teenager growing up in Tucson, AZ I had the opportunity to witness a couple of peyote ceremonies. From the various people I have come into contact with I will tell you my personal opinion. Peyote …

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