1. Concentrate enforcement resources: by area, by offense type, and by offender. Don’t try to do everything: do something. Get some part of the crime problem under control, to the point where reduced offending levels free up resources to be used on some other part of the problem.
2. Remember that arrests, convictions, and years in prison are costs, not benefits.
3. In controlling minor offenses and probation and parole violations, work toward swift and certain punishment, not severity.
4. Directly communicate deterrent threats to identified offenders. As the Lord said to Moses, don’t just strike the rock; talk to the rock.
5. Pay attention to group dynamics. If shootings are part of gang activity, threaten the gang (with concentrated enforcement), not just the shooter.
6. Mobilize the neighborhood.
7. Offer services as well as threats.
8. Call in David Kennedy.
This stuff isn’t rocket science. But it’s hard to do, and even harder to maintain, for reasons that have more to do with the difficulty of public management than with the supposed intractability of criminal behavior.